Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI or URL if available
Au, C. T. (2019). The Hong Kong modernism of Leung Ping-kwan. Lexington Books.
Cheung, Y.-L., Cheng, Y.-S., & Woo, C.-K. (2017). Hong Kong's global financial centre and China's development: Changing roles and future prospects. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315643021
Walker, A., & Qian, H. (2018). Deciphering Chinese school leadership: Conceptualisation, context and complexities. Routledge.
Yuen, M., Ho, J., Chung, Y. B., Fong, R. W., Cheng, S., Ho, J. H., Kwok, D., Ho, S., Tsui, J., Chiu, C. W., Cheng, C. K. Y., Yuen, J., & Cheung, V. (2012). Overcoming obstacles associated with other learning experiences and school-based assessment: Perspectives of high school students with visual impairment in Hong Kong. Centre for Advancement in Inclusive and Special Education, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Blind Union. https://repository.hku.hk/bitstream/10722/174007/2/Content.pdf
Remarks: If a book has multiple publishers on its copyright page, include all of them in the order shown on the work, separated by semicolons (as in the Yuen et al. example).
Edited book, no author
Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI or URL if available
So, W. W. M., Chow, C. F., & Lee, J. C. K. (Eds.). (2019). Environmental sustainability and education for waste management: Implications for policy and practice. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-9173-6
Halse, C. (Ed.). (2015). Asia literate schooling in the Asian century. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315815121
Book with group author (organization)
Omit the publisher when the author and publisher are the same
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed.).
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2011). Regulatory policy and governance: Supporting economic growth and serving the public interest. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264116573-en
One volume of a multivolume work
If the volume does not have its own title, include the volume number in parentheses without italics (as in the Abrams & Greenblatt example). If the volume has its own title, include the volume number and title after the main title in italics (as in the Travis & White example).
Abrams, M. H., & Greenblatt, S. (Eds.). (2000). The Norton anthology of English literature (7th ed., Vol. 1). W. W. Norton & Company.
Travis, C. B., & White, J. W. (Eds.). (2018). APA handbook of the psychology of women: Vol. 2. Perspectives on women’s private and public lives. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000060-000
Give the original title and translate it into English with square brackets
Barthes, R. (1977). Fragments d'un discours amoureux [A lover's discourse: Fragments]. Editions du Seuil.
Cheung, S. H.-N. (2007). Xianggang yueyu yufa de yanjiu [A grammar of Cantonese as spoken in Hong Kong]. The Chinese University Press.
Monograph published in ERIC database
Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities. (2020). Rethinking policy and practice for STEM education: New Hispanic perspectives (ED605691). ERIC. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED605691.pdf
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. page range of chapter). Publisher Name. DOI or URL if available
Printed book chapter
Buchtel, E. E., & Norenzayan, A. (2009). Thinking across cultures: Implications for dual processes. In J. S. B. T. Evans, & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: Dual processes and beyond (pp. 217–238). Oxford University Press.
Tam, C. O. (2021). Development, implementation, and effectiveness of using an online lesson in visual arts education: A design-based study. In C. P. Lim & C. R. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning for inclusive and quality higher education in Asia (pp. 151–170). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-33-4106-7_8
OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT. (May 12 version) [Large language model]. https://chat.openai.com/chat
Visit How to cite ChatGPT for more information.
Journal article with a DOI
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical in Italics, volume number in italics(issue number), page range. https://doi.org/xxxx
Chan, K. K. L., & Chong, K. M. E. (2019). A critical appraisal of the international factors in "One Country, Two Systems" and democratization in Hong Kong. Asian Education and Development Studies, 8(2), 208–216. https://doi.org/10.1108/AEDS-04-2018-0080
Song, M. J. (2020). The application of digital fabrication technologies to the art and design curriculum in a teacher preparation program: A case study. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 30(4), 687–707. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10798-019-09524-6
Journal article without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page range. URL
Sherraden, M. (2018). Asset building as social investment. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 45(4), 35–54. https://scholarworks.wmich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4242&context=jssw
Journal article without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page range.
Dresser, R. (2007). The effects of teacher inquiry in the bilingual language arts classroom. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(3), 53–66.
Hayhoe, R. (1997). A civilizational perspective on compulsory education. Educational Research Journal, 12(2), 138–141.
Advance online publication article
Frondozo, C. E., King, R. B., Nalipay, M. J. N. & Mordeno, I. G. (2020). Mindsets matter for teachers, too: Growth mindset about teaching ability predicts teachers’ enjoyment and engagement. Current Psychology. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-020-01008-4
Printed newspaper article
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper in Italics, page rage.
Mukhopadhyay, A. (2020, May 5). The value of education. South China Morning Post, B4.
Online newspaper article
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper in Italics, page range if available. URL
Kim, J. (2020, December 29). Remote schooling brings bigger losses for children still learning to speak English. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/
Remarks: To avoid nonworking URLs, give the URL of the newspaper home page when the online version of the article is available by search.
Dissertation or thesis from a database
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name.
Mu, W. W. (2019). The use of virtual worlds to facilitate social interaction of children on the autism spectrum (Publication No. 27540614) [Doctoral dissertation, The Education University of Hong Kong]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses A&I.
Dissertation or thesis from institutional repository
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Institutional Repository Name. URL
Siu, O. C. S. (2017). Narrative study on the teacher beliefs of Yi Jin instructors in Hong Kong [Doctoral dissertation, The Education University of Hong Kong]. The EdUHK Research Repository. https://repository.eduhk.hk/en/publications/narrative-study-on-the-teacher-beliefs-of-yi-jin-instructors-in-h
Unpublished dissertation or thesis
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.
Coomber, D. (2003). Expressive arts therapy techniques in psychotherapy to facilitate the expression of early developmental issues understood as transitional phenomena: A Winnicottian perspective [Unpublished master's thesis]. Auckland University of Technology.
Presenter, A. A. (Date). Title of conference paper or poster [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL if available
Bryant, D. (2019, March 10–12). How schools support the development of leadership capacity [Paper presentation]. Asia Leadership Roundtable 2019: The First Decade of Asian Research on School Leadership in a Global Context, Guilin, China.
Audiovisual materials includes motion pictures, audio or television broadcasts, and static objects such as maps, artwork, or photos.
Film or video
Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production Company.
Lloyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma mia! [Film]. Universal Pictures.
Person or group who uploaded video. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video]. Site Name. URL
The Education University of Hong Kong Library. (2018, August 7) . Maintaining a good environment in the library [Video]. YouTube. https://youtu.be/oBhLus0CXfE
Recording artist or group. (Year of release). Title of album [Album]. Record Label.
Dire Straits. (1998). Sultans of swing: The very best of Dire Straits [Album]. Warner Bros. Records.
Photographer, P. (Year of publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Site Name. URL
Carmichael, J. (2016). Tree frog. [Photograph]. Britannica ImageQuest. https://quest.eb.com/
Artwork in a museum or on a museum website
Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of work [Description of the format]. Gallery or Museum Name, Location. URL
Gossage, S. (2018). Float through the sky [Painting]. Tim Melville Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand. https://www.timmelville.com/artist/star-gossage/
PowerPoint slides or lecture notes
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Format of the document]. Site Name. URL
Chan, C. (2019). GE1504 Lifespan Development and Communication: The moral domain of development [PowerPoint slides]. EdUHK Moodle. https://moodle.eduhk.hk/login/index.php
Author, A. A. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Attached media, if applicable] [Type of post]. Site Name. URL
U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 11). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/USInterior/photos/a.155163054537384/2586475451406120/?type=3&theater
Author, A. A. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site Name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL
The Education University of Hong Kong. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved September 16, 2021, from https://www.facebook.com/EdUHK.hk/
Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. URL
Allott, K. (2020, June 10). The need to incorporate cognitive functioning into case formulation and treatment. IEPA. https://iepa.org.au/network-news/the-need-to-incorporate-cognitive-functioning-into-case-formulation-and-treatment/
World Health Organization. (2021, September 13). Depression. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/depression
Title of article. (Year, Month Day). In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page
Bystander effect. (2021, July 27). In Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bystander_effect&oldid=1035830156