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Citing Information: Example of Reference List (APA 7th ed.)


Authored book

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI or URL if available

Au, C. T. (2019). The Hong Kong modernism of Leung Ping-kwan. Lexington Books.

Cheung, Y.-L., Cheng, Y.-S., & Woo, C.-K. (2017). Hong Kong's global financial centre and China's development: Changing roles and future prospects. Routledge.

Walker, A., & Qian, H. (2018). Deciphering Chinese school leadership: Conceptualisation, context and complexities. Routledge.

Yuen, M., Ho, J., Chung, Y. B., Fong, R. W., Cheng, S., Ho, J. H., Kwok, D., Ho, S., Tsui, J., Chiu, C. W., Cheng, C. K. Y., Yuen, J., & Cheung, V. (2012). Overcoming obstacles associated with other learning experiences and school-based assessment: Perspectives of high school students with visual impairment in Hong Kong. Centre for Advancement in Inclusive and Special Education, Faculty of Education, University of Hong Kong; Hong Kong Blind Union.

Remarks: If a book has multiple publishers on its copyright page, include all of them in the order shown on the work, separated by semicolons (as in the Yuen et al. example).


Edited book, no author

Editor, E. E. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of book: Capital letter also for subtitle. Publisher Name. DOI or URL if available

So, W. W. M., Chow, C. F., & Lee, J. C. K. (Eds.). (2019). Environmental sustainability and education for waste management: Implications for policy and practice. Springer.

Halse, C. (Ed.). (2015). Asia literate schooling in the Asian century. Routledge.


Book with group author (organization)

Omit the publisher when the author and publisher are the same

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association: The official guide to APA style (7th ed.).

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2011). Regulatory policy and governance: Supporting economic growth and serving the public interest.


One volume of a multivolume work

If the volume does not have its own title, include the volume number in parentheses without italics (as in the Abrams & Greenblatt example). If the volume has its own title, include the volume number and title after the main title in italics (as in the Travis & White example).

Abrams, M. H., & Greenblatt, S. (Eds.). (2000). The Norton anthology of English literature (7th ed., Vol. 1). W. W. Norton & Company.

Travis, C. B., & White, J. W. (Eds.). (2018). APA handbook of the psychology of women: Vol. 2. Perspectives on women’s private and public lives. American Psychological Association.


Non-English book

Give the original title and translate it into English with square brackets

Barthes, R. (1977). Fragments d'un discours amoureux [A lover's discourse: Fragments]. Editions du Seuil.

Cheung, S. H.-N. (2007). Xianggang yueyu yufa de yanjiu [A grammar of Cantonese as spoken in Hong Kong]. The Chinese University Press.


Monograph published in ERIC database

Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities. (2020). Rethinking policy and practice for STEM education: New Hispanic perspectives (ED605691). ERIC.

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In E. E. Editor & F. F. Editor (Eds.), Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle (pp. page range of chapter). Publisher Name. DOI or URL if available

Printed book chapter

Buchtel, E. E., & Norenzayan, A. (2009). Thinking across cultures: Implications for dual processes. In J. S. B. T. Evans, & K. Frankish (Eds.), In two minds: Dual processes and beyond (pp. 217–238). Oxford University Press.

E-book chapter

Tam, C. O. (2021). Development, implementation, and effectiveness of using an online lesson in visual arts education: A design-based study. In C. P. Lim & C. R. Graham (Eds.), Blended learning for inclusive and quality higher education in Asia (pp. 151–170). Springer.



OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT. (May 12 version) [Large language model].

Visit How to cite ChatGPT for more information.

Journal article with a DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical in Italics, volume number in italics(issue number), page range.

Chan, K. K. L., & Chong, K. M. E. (2019). A critical appraisal of the international factors in "One Country, Two Systems" and democratization in Hong Kong. Asian Education and Development Studies, 8(2), 208216.

Song, M. J. (2020). The application of digital fabrication technologies to the art and design curriculum in a teacher preparation program: A case study. International Journal of Technology and Design Education, 30(4), 687–707.


Journal article without a DOI, with a nondatabase URL

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page range. URL

Sherraden, M. (2018). Asset building as social investment. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 45(4), 35–54.


Journal article without a DOI, from most academic research databases or print version

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page range.

Dresser, R. (2007). The effects of teacher inquiry in the bilingual language arts classroom. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(3), 5366.

Hayhoe, R. (1997). A civilizational perspective on compulsory education. Educational Research Journal, 12(2), 138141.


Advance online publication article

Frondozo, C. E., King, R. B., Nalipay, M. J. N. & Mordeno, I. G. (2020). Mindsets matter for teachers, too: Growth mindset about teaching ability predicts teachers’ enjoyment and engagement. Current Psychology. Advance online publication.

Printed newspaper article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper in Italics, page rage.

Mukhopadhyay, A. (2020, May 5). The value of education. South China Morning Post, B4.


Online newspaper article

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper in Italics, page range if available. URL

Kim, J. (2020, December 29). Remote schooling brings bigger losses for children still learning to speak English. The New York Times.

Remarks: To avoid nonworking URLs, give the URL of the newspaper home page when the online version of the article is available by search.


Dissertation or thesis from a database

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name.

Mu, W. W. (2019). The use of virtual worlds to facilitate social interaction of children on the autism spectrum (Publication No. 27540614) [Doctoral dissertation, The Education University of Hong Kong]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses A&I.


Dissertation or thesis from institutional repository

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis [Doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Institutional Repository Name. URL

Siu, O. C. S. (2017). Narrative study on the teacher beliefs of Yi Jin instructors in Hong Kong [Doctoral dissertation, The Education University of Hong Kong]. The EdUHK Research Repository.


Unpublished dissertation or thesis

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.

Coomber, D. (2003). Expressive arts therapy techniques in psychotherapy to facilitate the expression of early developmental issues understood as transitional phenomena: A Winnicottian perspective [Unpublished master's thesis]. Auckland University of Technology.

Presenter, A. A. (Date). Title of conference paper or poster [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location. DOI or URL if available

Bryant, D. (2019, March 10–12). How schools support the development of leadership capacity [Paper presentation]. Asia Leadership Roundtable 2019: The First Decade of Asian Research on School Leadership in a Global Context, Guilin, China.


  • Describe the presentation in square brackets after the title, e.g. [Conference session], [Paper presentation], [Poster session], [Keynote address], etc.
  • Provide the name of the conference, followed by its location.
  • Conference proceedings published in a journal or book should follow the same format as for a journal article, edited book, or edited book chapter.




Audiovisual materials includes motion pictures, audio or television broadcasts, and static objects such as maps, artwork, or photos.

Film or video

Director, D. D. (Director). (Year of publication). Title of motion picture [Film]. Production Company.

Lloyd, P. (Director). (2008). Mamma mia! [Film]. Universal Pictures.


YouTube video

Person or group who uploaded video. (Date of publication). Title of video [Video]. Site Name. URL

The Education University of Hong Kong Library. (2018, August 7) . Maintaining a good environment in the library [Video]. YouTube.


Music album

Recording artist or group. (Year of release). Title of album [Album]. Record Label.

Dire Straits. (1998). Sultans of swing: The very best of Dire Straits  [Album]. Warner Bros. Records.



Photographer, P. (Year of publication). Title of photograph [Photograph]. Site Name. URL

Carmichael, J. (2016). Tree frog. [Photograph]. Britannica ImageQuest.


Artwork in a museum or on a museum website

Artist, A. A. (Year). Title of work [Description of the format]. Gallery or Museum Name, Location. URL

Gossage, S. (2018). Float through the sky [Painting]. Tim Melville Gallery, Auckland, New Zealand.


PowerPoint slides or lecture notes

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of presentation [Format of the document]. Site Name. URL

Chan, C. (2019). GE1504 Lifespan Development and Communication: The moral domain of development [PowerPoint slides]. EdUHK Moodle.

Facebook post

Author, A. A. or Name of Group. (Year, Month Day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words [Attached media, if applicable] [Type of post]. Site Name. URL

U.S. Department of the Interior. (2020, January 11). Like frosting on a cake, snow coats and clings to the hoodoos at Bryce Canyon National Park in Utah [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook.


Facebook page

Author, A. A. or Name of Group. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Site Name. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL

The Education University of Hong Kong. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved September 16, 2021, from


  • Use the page title in the reference, e.g. “Home,” “About,” “Reviews”, etc.
  • Provide a retrieval date only when the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.



Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. URL

Allott, K. (2020, June 10). The need to incorporate cognitive functioning into case formulation and treatment. IEPA.

World Health Organization. (2021, September 13). Depression.


Wikipedia article

Title of article. (Year, Month Day). In Wikipedia. URL of archived version of page

Bystander effect. (2021, July 27). In Wikipedia



  • Omit the site name when the author and site name are the same.
  • When citing Wikipedia, click “View history” to retrieve the date of the archived version you used.