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Open Access: Glossary


Article Processing Fee

  • Fee paid to a publisher by the author, author’s institution or funder, for Gold Open Access.

Creative Commons

  • Global organisation that offers legal tools, including Creative Commons licences, that right holders can use to offer certain usage rights to the public, while reserving other rights.


  • A delay period imposed by a publisher on making full-text available in a repository. The embargo period, which is usually indicated in the copyright agreement, may vary from 6 months to 2 years. Sometimes the publisher's embargo conflicts with a funder's requirement, so it is always advisable for the authors to check before submitting their papers for publishing.  In other words, the paper itself must remain closed access during the embargo period.

Institutional Repository (IR)

  • A collection for organizing, storing, and disseminating digital copies of research created by a society, university, or other organization.

Transformative Agreements

  • They are designed to transform the business model of scholarly publishing by enabling publishers to transition from the traditional subscription-based pay-to-read model to an Open Access publishing model. 


  • The first draft of an article, before peer-review, possibly even before any contact with a publisher.

Predatory Journals

  • The term predatory publishers was first used by Ball in 2010 for journals following an exploitative open access publishing business model that involves charging authors a publication fee without providing the editorial and peer review services associated with legitimate journals.