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Citing Information: APA Style (6th ed.) - Reference List

How to Develop Reference List

The reference list at the end of a paper provides the necessary information to identify and retrieve each source. You should only include those cited sources in the reference list.

  • Each entry in the reference list usually contains the following essential elements for unique identification: author, year of publication, title and publishing data.
  • APA Style requires that the reference list should be double-spaced and each entry has a hanging indent. 
  • Each reference cited in text must appear in the reference list, and each entry in the reference list must be cited in text.
  • The reference list should be arranged by the author's family name. If there are more than one citation by an author, further sort the citations by ascending publication year. 
Authored Book

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publication place: Publisher.

Single Author:

Spurrier, J. D. (2000). The practice of statistics: Putting the pieces together. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury Press.


E-Book (Single Author):

Daynes, S., & Williams, T. M. (2018). On ethnography. Cambridge, UK: Polity. Retrieved from


Multiple Authors:

Large, A., Tedd, L. A., & Hartley, R. J. (1999). Information seeking in the online age: Principles and practice. London, England: Bowker-Saur.


Group Author as Publisher:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.


Non-English Book:

Give the original title and translate it into English and quoted with brackets

Barthes, R. (1977). Fragments d'un discours amoureux [A lover's discourse: Fragments]. Paris, France: Editions du Seuil.

Cheung, S. H.-N. (2007). Xianggang yueyu yufa de yanjiu [A grammar of Cantonese as spoken in Hong Kong]. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong.


Edited Book

Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Publication place: Publisher.

Lucas, C. (Ed.). (2001). The sociolinguistics of sign languages. New York, NY: Cambridege University Press.

Dell Orto, A. E., & Power, P. W. (Eds.). (2007). The psychological & social impact of illness and disability. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.


Book Chapter

Author, A. A. (Year). Chapter title. In B.B. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (pp. page numbers). Publication place: Publisher.

Book Chapter:

Currie, G.. (2005). Imagination and make-believe. In B.Gaut & D. M. Lopes (Eds.), The Routledge companion to aesthetics (2nd ed.) (pp. 335-346). London, England: Routledge.

Shoho, A. R., Merchant, B. M., & Lugg, C. A. (2005). Social justice: Seeking a common language. In F. W. English (Ed.), The Sage handbook of educational leadership: Advances in theory, research, and practice (pp. 47-66). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


E-Book Chapter:

Johnson, W. (2009). Open access journals: The global movement and local publishing. In W. Jones (Ed.), E-Journals access and management (pp. 25-38). New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from

Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals, magazines, scholarly newsletters, etc.


Article from Printed Periodicals

Author, A.A. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page numbers.

Give the periodical title in full.

Tall, D. (2000). Cognitive development in advanced mathematics using technology. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 12, 196-218.


Retain the hyphen if the author's first name is hyphenated.

Hue, M.T. (2009). Promotion of spiritual development: exploration of the self and spiritualism through the practice of Chinese calligraphy. Pastoral Care in Education, 27, 63-76. 


Include the issue no. if the journal is paginated by issue.

Bill, M., & Emmy, M. (2008). Writing tutors in the economics classroom: A case study. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 38(3), 21-36. 


List up to and including seven authors.

Vanhoof, J., Van Petegem, P., Verhoeven, J. C., & Buvens I. (2009). Linking the policymaking capacities of schools and the quality of school self-evaluations: The view of school leaders. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 37, 667-686. 


If there are more than seven authors, list the first six authors, omit all subsequent authors except the last and replaced with …, then follow with the last author.

Seedat, S., Scott, K. M., Angermeyer, M. C., Berglund, P., Bromet, E. J., Brugha, T. S., . . . Kessler, R. C. (2009). Cross-National Associations between gender and mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 785-795.


Article from Online Periodicals

Author, A.A. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page numbers. DOI

  • As the URLs of online journal articles may change over time, APA Style recommends to use the Digital Object Identifier (DOI), when it is available, as opposed to the URL
  • DOI is an unique identification of electronic publication providing persistent link to its location on the Internet. It is an alphanumeric string assigned by registration agency in the format: 10.xxxx/xxxx
  • Given the DOI, a journal article can be located with a DOI resolver, e.g.
  • More information of DOI can be found at the website:
  • Use one of the following formats for DOI, but BE CONSISTENT:
    • doi.10xxxx/xxxx

Online Journal Article with DOI

Include the DOI in the reference if one is assigned.

Bore, A., & Wright, N. (2009). The wicked and complex in education: developing a transdisciplinary perspective for policy formulation, implementation and professional practice. Journal of Education for Teaching, 35, 241-256.


Online Journal Article without DOI

If no DOI is assigned, include the home page URL of the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference, using the format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx

Dresser, R. (2007). The effects of teacher inquiry in the bilingual language arts classroom. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(3), 53-66. Retrieved from


Newsletter Article NOT Indexed in Homepage

If the article cannot be easily retrieved from the source, include the full document URL in the reference.

Lam, A. (1999). Poetry in the classroom: Some tips for teachers. Reading Association Newsletter, 35(2), 5-8. Retrieved from

Reference Works include encyclopedias, dictionaries, and discipline-specific reference books.


Crystal, D. (Ed.). (2008). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.


Entry in Reference Work:

Gilman, R., Huebener, S., & Buckman, M. (2009). Life satisfaction. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), The encyclopedia of positive psychology (pp. 582-585). Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell Pub.


Entry in Reference Work without Author:

Hypothesis testing. (2009). In B. Everitt, (Ed.), A Cambridge dictionary of statistics (3rd ed.) (p. 195). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.


Entry in Online Reference Work:

Stern, P. C. (2002). Mass consumption. In A. S. Goudie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of global change. Retrieved from

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title, page numbers.

Newspaper Article with Author:

Siu, B. (2010, January 8). Elite school for boys will ‘fine-tune’ English skills. The Standard, p. 10.


Newspaper Article, Letter to the Editor:

Chan, C.W.T. (2010, January 7). No excuse not to switch bus fleet to diesel-electric hybrid models [Letter to the editor]. South China Morning Post, p. EDT12.


Online Newspaper Article:

To avoid nonworking URLs, give the URL of the newspaper home page when the online version of the article is available by search.

Andrew, E. L. (2009, April 19). U.S. May Convert Banks’ Bailouts to Equity Share. The New York Times. Retrieved from

  • If the proceedings of meetings and symposia have been published in book or periodical form, use the citation format as for a book or periodical.
  • If the symposium contributions, paper or poster presentation has not been formally published, include the month and year of the symposium or meeting in the reference. 

Symposium Contribution:

McInerney, D. M., Lee, J. Q., Liem, A. D., & Ortiga, Y. Y. (2009, August). Future goals and achievement goals: Expanding the horizons of goal theory. In M. Wosnitza (Chair), Latest developments in research on multiple goals in learning contexts. Symposium conducted at the 13th Biennial Conference: EARLI 2009: Fostering Communities of Learners, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Conference Paper Abstract:

Raquel, M. R., & Stone, D. (2009, July). Refining an English placement test for undergraduates and graduates students. Paper presented at the Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium 2009 (PROMS 2009) Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, China.


Paper Presentation or Poster Session:

Sin, K. F. (2008, March). Education reform and teacher education for inclusion in the Asian-Pacific region. Paper presented at the 1st East-Asian Symposium on Teacher Education Research, Tokyo, Japan.


Conference Paper Abstract Retrieved Online:

Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2006, November). Becoming a professional: Developing teacher identity within programmes of teacher education. Paper presented at the International Conference on Teacher Education, Calgary, Canada. Abstract retrieved from

From Commercial Database:

If the dissertation or thesis is retrieved from a commercial database, include the name of database, and the accession 
or order number in the reference.

Ko, B. (2008). An examination of teaching practices of elementary physical educators. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Pub No. AAT 3332216)


From Institution Database:

If the dissertation or thesis is retrieved from an institutional database, include the URL of the database home page in 
the reference.

Adler, A. N. (2006). Syntax and discourse in the acquisition of adjunct control. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from


From the Web:

If the dissertation or thesis is retrieved from the web, include the full URL in the reference.

Xu, Z. (2008). Party controls in National Central University and Nanjing University before and after 1949. (Master thesis, Lingnan University, Hong Kong, China). Retrieved from


Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis:

If the dissertation or thesis is from an institute outside the United States, include the name of the institute and the place and country in the reference.

Li, X. (2009). POMDP compression and decomposition via belief state analysis. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China.

Audiovisual media includes motion pictures, audio or television broadcasts, and static objects such as maps, artwork, or photos.

Motion Picture:

Zaentz, S. (Producer), & Forman, M. (Director). (1984). Amadeus [Motion picture]. Los Angeles, CA: Orion Pictures.



Milchan A. (Producer), Reuther, S. (Producer), & Schumacher, J. (Director) (1998). The client. [DVD]. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.


Music Recording:

Ma, Y. Y. (2007). New impossibilities [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Classical.



View of the Earth seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the moon [Photograph]. (1972). Retrieved from



Wen, Z. (Painter). (1527). In the deep shade of a bamboo grove. [Painting]. Hong Kong Art Museum, Hong Kong, China. Retrieved from


Education Bureau. (2009). Primary and secondary education. Retrieved from


Blog Post:

McAdoo, T. (2009, September 10). Use of first person in APA style [Web log post]. Retrieved from


Video Post:

Thenobelprize. (2009, October 6). The 2009 Nobel prize in physics [Video file]. Retrieved from



Passmore, S. (2009, September 8). Naked Cantonese [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from


Newsgroup Post:

Faruk. (2009, October 2). Brain development [Newsgroup message]. Retrieved from


Online Forum:

Dairygirl. (2009, February 9). Dyslexic student and memorizing his multiplication facts [Online forum message]. Retrieved from



British Council. (2009, October 23). The British Council celebrates the 10th International School Awards! [Facebook update]. Retrieved from



Openculture. (2010, January 5). Harvard philosopher Michael Sandel talks about what we can (and can't do) with our own bodies:


Remarks: Provide a retrieval date for references when the content changes over time, such as for nonarchived social media pages.

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