The reference list at the end of a paper provides the necessary information to identify and retrieve each source. You should only include those cited sources in the reference list.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. Publication place: Publisher.
Spurrier, J. D. (2000). The practice of statistics: Putting the pieces together. Pacific Grove, CA: Duxbury Press.
E-Book (Single Author):
Daynes, S., & Williams, T. M. (2018). On ethnography. Cambridge, UK: Polity. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=1814524&site=ehost-live&scope=site&custid=s1049680&groupid=main&profile=ehost
Large, A., Tedd, L. A., & Hartley, R. J. (1999). Information seeking in the online age: Principles and practice. London, England: Bowker-Saur.
Group Author as Publisher:
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Give the original title and translate it into English and quoted with brackets
Barthes, R. (1977). Fragments d'un discours amoureux [A lover's discourse: Fragments]. Paris, France: Editions du Seuil.
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (Year). Title of work. Publication place: Publisher.
Lucas, C. (Ed.). (2001). The sociolinguistics of sign languages. New York, NY: Cambridege University Press.
Dell Orto, A. E., & Power, P. W. (Eds.). (2007). The psychological & social impact of illness and disability. New York, NY: Springer Pub. Co.
Author, A. A. (Year). Chapter title. In B.B. Editor (Ed.), Title of work (pp. page numbers). Publication place: Publisher.
Currie, G.. (2005). Imagination and make-believe. In B.Gaut & D. M. Lopes (Eds.), The Routledge companion to aesthetics (2nd ed.) (pp. 335-346). London, England: Routledge.
Shoho, A. R., Merchant, B. M., & Lugg, C. A. (2005). Social justice: Seeking a common language. In F. W. English (Ed.), The Sage handbook of educational leadership: Advances in theory, research, and practice (pp. 47-66). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Johnson, W. (2009). Open access journals: The global movement and local publishing. In W. Jones (Ed.), E-Journals access and management (pp. 25-38). New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved from http://lib.myilibrary.com/Browse/open.asp?ID=170652&loc=25
Periodicals include items published on a regular basis: journals, magazines, scholarly newsletters, etc.
Author, A.A. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page numbers.
Give the periodical title in full.
Tall, D. (2000). Cognitive development in advanced mathematics using technology. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 12, 196-218.
Retain the hyphen if the author's first name is hyphenated.
Hue, M.T. (2009). Promotion of spiritual development: exploration of the self and spiritualism through the practice of Chinese calligraphy. Pastoral Care in Education, 27, 63-76.
Include the issue no. if the journal is paginated by issue.
Bill, M., & Emmy, M. (2008). Writing tutors in the economics classroom: A case study. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 38(3), 21-36.
List up to and including seven authors.
Vanhoof, J., Van Petegem, P., Verhoeven, J. C., & Buvens I. (2009). Linking the policymaking capacities of schools and the quality of school self-evaluations: The view of school leaders. Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 37, 667-686.
If there are more than seven authors, list the first six authors, omit all subsequent authors except the last and replaced with …, then follow with the last author.
Seedat, S., Scott, K. M., Angermeyer, M. C., Berglund, P., Bromet, E. J., Brugha, T. S., . . . Kessler, R. C. (2009). Cross-National Associations between gender and mental disorders in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 785-795.
Author, A.A. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume(Issue), page numbers. DOI
Online Journal Article with DOI
Include the DOI in the reference if one is assigned.
Bore, A., & Wright, N. (2009). The wicked and complex in education: developing a transdisciplinary perspective for policy formulation, implementation and professional practice. Journal of Education for Teaching, 35, 241-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/02607470903091286
Online Journal Article without DOI
If no DOI is assigned, include the home page URL of the journal, newsletter, or magazine in the reference, using the format: Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx
Dresser, R. (2007). The effects of teacher inquiry in the bilingual language arts classroom. Teacher Education Quarterly, 34(3), 53-66. Retrieved from http://www.teqjournal.org/
Newsletter Article NOT Indexed in Homepage
If the article cannot be easily retrieved from the source, include the full document URL in the reference.
Lam, A. (1999). Poetry in the classroom: Some tips for teachers. Reading Association Newsletter, 35(2), 5-8. Retrieved from http://www.reading.org.hk/Newsletter/new35/page5.html
Reference Works include encyclopedias, dictionaries, and discipline-specific reference books.
Crystal, D. (Ed.). (2008). A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.
Entry in Reference Work:
Gilman, R., Huebener, S., & Buckman, M. (2009). Life satisfaction. In S. J. Lopez (Ed.), The encyclopedia of positive psychology (pp. 582-585). Chichester, England: Wiley-Blackwell Pub.
Entry in Reference Work without Author:
Hypothesis testing. (2009). In B. Everitt, (Ed.), A Cambridge dictionary of statistics (3rd ed.) (p. 195). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Entry in Online Reference Work:
Stern, P. C. (2002). Mass consumption. In A. S. Goudie (Ed.), Encyclopedia of global change. Retrieved from http://www.oxford-globalchange.com/entry?entry=t178.e0283
Newspaper Article with Author:
Siu, B. (2010, January 8). Elite school for boys will ‘fine-tune’ English skills. The Standard, p. 10.
Newspaper Article, Letter to the Editor:
Chan, C.W.T. (2010, January 7). No excuse not to switch bus fleet to diesel-electric hybrid models [Letter to the editor]. South China Morning Post, p. EDT12.
Online Newspaper Article:
To avoid nonworking URLs, give the URL of the newspaper home page when the online version of the article is available by search.
Andrew, E. L. (2009, April 19). U.S. May Convert Banks’ Bailouts to Equity Share. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/
McInerney, D. M., Lee, J. Q., Liem, A. D., & Ortiga, Y. Y. (2009, August). Future goals and achievement goals: Expanding the horizons of goal theory. In M. Wosnitza (Chair), Latest developments in research on multiple goals in learning contexts. Symposium conducted at the 13th Biennial Conference: EARLI 2009: Fostering Communities of Learners, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Conference Paper Abstract:
Raquel, M. R., & Stone, D. (2009, July). Refining an English placement test for undergraduates and graduates students. Paper presented at the Pacific Rim Objective Measurement Symposium 2009 (PROMS 2009) Hong Kong, The Hong Kong Institute of Education, Hong Kong, China.
Paper Presentation or Poster Session:
Sin, K. F. (2008, March). Education reform and teacher education for inclusion in the Asian-Pacific region. Paper presented at the 1st East-Asian Symposium on Teacher Education Research, Tokyo, Japan.
Conference Paper Abstract Retrieved Online:
Beauchamp, C., & Thomas, L. (2006, November). Becoming a professional: Developing teacher identity within programmes of teacher education. Paper presented at the International Conference on Teacher Education, Calgary, Canada. Abstract retrieved from http://ucalgarymcgilledconf.mcgill.ca/abstracts/beauchamp_thomas.html
From Commercial Database:
If the dissertation or thesis is retrieved from a commercial database, include the name of database, and the accession
or order number in the reference.
Ko, B. (2008). An examination of teaching practices of elementary physical educators. (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (Pub No. AAT 3332216)
From Institution Database:
If the dissertation or thesis is retrieved from an institutional database, include the URL of the database home page in
Adler, A. N. (2006). Syntax and discourse in the acquisition of adjunct control. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://libraries.mit.edu/mit-theses
From the Web:
If the dissertation or thesis is retrieved from the web, include the full URL in the reference.
Xu, Z. (2008). Party controls in National Central University and Nanjing University before and after 1949. (Master thesis, Lingnan University, Hong Kong, China). Retrieved from http://www.library.ln.edu.hk/ethesis/full/xu_081015.pdf
Unpublished Dissertation or Thesis:
If the dissertation or thesis is from an institute outside the United States, include the name of the institute and the place and country in the reference.
Li, X. (2009). POMDP compression and decomposition via belief state analysis. (Unpublished doctoral thesis). Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong, China.
Audiovisual media includes motion pictures, audio or television broadcasts, and static objects such as maps, artwork, or photos.
Zaentz, S. (Producer), & Forman, M. (Director). (1984). Amadeus [Motion picture]. Los Angeles, CA: Orion Pictures.
Milchan A. (Producer), Reuther, S. (Producer), & Schumacher, J. (Director) (1998). The client. [DVD]. Burbank, CA: Warner Home Video.
Ma, Y. Y. (2007). New impossibilities [CD]. New York, NY: Sony Classical.
View of the Earth seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the moon [Photograph]. (1972). Retrieved from http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/image/planetary/earth/apollo17_earth.jpg
Wen, Z. (Painter). (1527). In the deep shade of a bamboo grove. [Painting]. Hong Kong Art Museum, Hong Kong, China. Retrieved from http://www.lcsd.gov.hk/ce/Museum/Arts/images/collections/24/2_4_5a.jpg
Education Bureau. (2009). Primary and secondary education. Retrieved from http://www.edb.gov.hk/index.aspx?nodeID=139&langno=1
McAdoo, T. (2009, September 10). Use of first person in APA style [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2009/09/use-of-first-person-in-apa-style.html
Thenobelprize. (2009, October 6). The 2009 Nobel prize in physics [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPOd8oTDQLc
Passmore, S. (2009, September 8). Naked Cantonese [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://podcast.rthk.org.hk/podcast/item.php?pid=45
Faruk. (2009, October 2). Brain development [Newsgroup message]. Retrieved from http://groups.google.com/group/de.test/browse_thread/thread/8fff31276ed86b36/9d962272cb18d615?q=childhood+development
Dairygirl. (2009, February 9). Dyslexic student and memorizing his multiplication facts [Online forum message]. Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/xarbb/topic/15298
British Council. (2009, October 23). The British Council celebrates the 10th International School Awards! [Facebook update]. Retrieved from http://www.facebook.com/posted.php?id=153660100664&share_id=164946371206&comments=1#s164946371206
Openculture. (2010, January 5). Harvard philosopher Michael Sandel talks about what we can (and can't do) with our own bodies: http://twitter.com/openculture/status/7411166520
Remarks: Provide a retrieval date for references when the content changes over time, such as for nonarchived social media pages.